Glossary of terms


                A

                A/P

                Anterior/Posterior (anatomic terms)

                AAOS

                American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons

                Abdomen

                A portion of the body between the thorax and pelvis

                Abduct

                To draw away from the midline

                Abduction

                The act of drawing away from the midline; opposite of adduction

                Abductor

                A muscle performing the function of abduction

                Abscess

                Localized collection of pus

                Acetabulum

                The cavity in the os coxae (hip) into which the head of the femur fits

                Acromion

                Bony process of the scapula which forms the point of the shoulder

                Acute

                Severe and/or short duration; used in speaking of duration and severity of disease

                Adamant

                Extremely hard, as enamel of tooth

                Adduct

                To draw toward the midline

                Adduction

                The act of drawing toward the midline; opposite abduction

                Allograft

                A tissue transplanted to a different individual of the same species

                Alloy

                A mix of metals designed to improve implant material properties for specific purposes

                All-poly

                A component composed entirely of polyethylene, with no metal parts

                Amphiarthrosis

                A joint with little movement and no joint cavity

                Anconeus

                Pertaining to the elbow

                Ankylosis

                The fusion of a joint

                Anteflexion

                A forward curvature; a condition in which the upper part of an organ is bent forward; opposite of retroflexion

                Anterior

                Placed in the front or forward part; opposite of posterior

                Anteversion

                A forward turning; a condition in which an entire organ is abnormally tipped forward

                Apex

                Top or summit

                Aponeurosis

                A flat sheet of white fibrous tissue, usually serving as an attachment for a muscle; plural aponeuroses; aponeurotica, Latin adjective

                Appliance

                Device used in support or fracture fixation external or internal

                Apposition

                The state of being fitted together, being in contact at the ends (see also mineral apposition)

                Aqueous

                Watery

                Arthritis

                Inflammation of a joint

                Arthrodesis

                Fusion of a joint, eliminating all motion

                Arthroplasty

                The surgical reconstruction of a joint

                Arthrosis

                A joint: from the Greek

                Arthrotomy

                Cutting into a joint

                Articular

                Pertaining to a joint; surfaces that "fit together"

                Articulation

                Movement of a joint; from the Latin

                Asepsis

                A condition free from germs; free from infection

                Aspect

                Position, surface, or face

                Aspirate

                To remove by suction

                Asymmetric design

                A design which mirrors the natural, anatomic contours of a joint, a design which comes in right and left configurations

                Atrophy

                A wasting away of tissue usually through disuse

                Autograft

                A tissue transplanted from one part to another part of the same body

                Autonomic

                ?Being self-controlled; independent

                Axial

                ?Pertaining to the axis or line about which a body turns, therefore pertaining to the trunk; opposite of appendicular

                B

                Beads, beaded

                Term used to describe implant coatings made of tiny spheres (beading)

                Biaxial

                Turning about two axes (having two axes)

                Biconcave

                Having two concave surfaces

                Bilateral

                Occurring on both sides of a midline point or pertaining to both sides of the body (ex. bilateral knee replacement means having both knees replaced)

                Biocompatibility

                Materials that can coexist with living tissue without being harmful or toxic or being rejected by the host. The most common materials for joint replacement are polyethylenes, metals and ceramics, each has specific biocompatible characteristics

                Biomechanics

                The study of the relationship between forces and motion in biologic systems like the human body

                Bipolar

                Having two poles or processes

                Blood

                A fluid tissue circulating through heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries

                Bone cement

                Material usually made of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) which acts like a grout between an implant and the patient’s bone (see also cement)

                Brachial

                Pertaining to the arm

                Broach

                A tool or instrument used to enlarge the interior canal of bones to allow for insertion of implants, broaching is the process of enlarging the canal

                C

                Cage

                A type of spinal implant

                Calcaneus

                The heel bone; also termed calcaneum

                Calcar

                A thickened plate of bone near the head of the femur

                Cancellous

                Lattice-like bone structure; softer bone

                Cancellous bone

                A type of bone characterized by a spongy or lattice-like structure. Also known as Trabecular Bone.

                Cancellous-structured titanium

                A specially-manufactured, patented type of titanium coating that permits bone ingrowth because of its lattice-like surface texture. (see also CSTi)

                Capitate

                Bone of the wrist having head-shaped process.

                Capitulum

                Little head.

                Capsular

                A ligament which surrounds a movable joint.

                Caput

                Head; capitis, "of the head."

                Carpal

                Pertaining to the wrist.

                Carpus

                The wrist; carpi, "of the wrist."

                Caudal

                Pertaining to any tail-like structure; inferior in position.

                Cement

                Material usually made of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) which acts like a grout between an implant and the patient’s bone. (Bone cement)

                Cemented

                An implant which is secured in a patient’s body with the aid of bone cement or the process of using cement to help fix an implant.

                Central

                Situated in the midportion as opposed to peripheral.

                Chronic

                Of long duration; opposite of acute.

                Circumduct

                To rotate in a cone shape around a single point, as in the shoulder joint.

                Circumflex

                Bent or turned about.

                Clavicle

                The collar bone

                Clinical pathway

                Established methodologies and decision trees for use by health professionals and patients in planning and preparing for medical intervention.

                Coatings

                Any number of different materials applied to the surface of an implant or prosthesis to aid in fixation; porous coatings generally permit ingrowth into the implant. (see also porous, beads)

                Cobalt-chrome

                A metal alloy with excellent resistance to fatigue, cracking and stress, widely-used in orthopedic implants. (also see CoCr)

                Coccyx

                Last, lowest portion of vertebral column (tailbone).

                CoCr

                Cobalt Chrome Alloy, a metal alloy with excellent resistance to fatigue, cracking and stress, widely-used in orthopedic implants.

                Collar, collared

                The top edge of a hip stem implant which rests on the top edges of the bone in which it was implanted.

                Component

                A part of an implant system, for example the patellar component is that piece that either replaces or enhances the original patella (knee cap).

                Concave

                Having a depressed surface; center is at a lower level than edge; opposite of convex.

                Condyle

                A rounded knob on the end of a hone; a knuckle.

                Condyloid

                Resembling a knuckle.

                Congenital

                Present at birth, as in CDH, congenital dislocated hip.

                Congruent

                The degree of constraint of two articular implants. (congruence)

                Convex

                Having a rounded elevated surface; opposite of concave.

                Coracoid

                Like a crow's beak; variant of coronoid.

                Costal

                Pertaining to a rib or ribs.

                Coxa

                The hip; coxae, "of the hip."

                Cranial

                Pertaining to the cranium.

                Cranium

                The skull or brain pan.

                Cruciate

                Shaped like a cross.

                Cruciate ligament

                Any paired set of ligaments that cross over each other in an "X" formation, usually used to refer to the posterior cruciate ligament and the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee, which help stabilize the forward and backward motion of the knee.

                Cruciate-retaining

                A knee system design that allows the surgeon to keep the patient’s cruciate ligament.

                Cruciate-sacrificing

                A knee system in which the design of the implant must serve to stabilize the forward and back motion of the knee components because of an excised or deficient patient’s ligament. (see also PS)

                CSTi

                A specially manufactured, patented type of titanium coating that permits ingrowth because of its lattice-like surface texture. (see also Cancellous-structured titanium)

                Cubital

                Pertaining to the tile space in front of the elbow joint.

                Custom

                An implant manufactured to the demands of a surgeon based on the specific needs of one patient

                Cyclic fatigue

                A biomechanical measure of stress placed on a material, measured in "cycles" of regular motion (as in joint motion - rotation, bending, etc.)

                D

                Deltoid

                Triangular; resembling the Greek letter, delta.

                Design rationale

                The justification for an implant design based on extensive research into materials, clinical data, function, style, anatomical constraints, etc.

                Diagnosis

                Recognition of disease from symptoms.

                Diathrosis

                A freely moveable joint; plural diarthroses.

                Digiti

                Of a digit.

                Digitorum

                Of the digits.

                Dislocation

                The displacement of any part, especially the removal temporarily of a bone from its normal position in a joint

                Distal

                Remote; opposite of proximal.

                Dorsiflex

                To turn toward the back; opposite of palmar flex.

                E

                Endosteum

                Tissue surrounding the medullary cavity of bone.

                Epi

                A prefix meaning "on" or "above", opposite of hypo.

                Epicondyle

                A prominence or a bone on or upon a condyle.

                Epiphysis

                A part of process of a bone which ossifles separately before making osseous union with the main portion of the bone; the "growth plate" of bones

                Etiology

                The study of the causes of disease

                Eversion

                The act of turning outward; opposite of inversion.

                Evert

                To turn out; to turn tile sole of the foot outward opposite of invert.

                Extension

                A movement at a joint bringing the two parts into or toward a straight line from a flexed position; opposite of flexion

                External

                On the surface or outer side; opposite of internal. Latin adjective, externus or externa

                Extra

                Prefix meaning "outside of," opposite of intra

                F

                FDA

                Food and Drug Administration

                Femur

                Thigh; bone of the thigh; femoral is the adjective; femoris, "of the thigh." Smaller bone of lower leg; tile splint bone

                Fixation

                The act, process or operation of holding, suturing or fastening something into a fixed position. In orthopedics, often refers to the stability and immobilization of an implant into the patient’s body

                Flexion

                Sagittal plane movement in which the anterior surfaces of two segments are brought closer to each other; opposite of extension; bending of a joint

                Flexure

                The curved or bent part of a structure

                Foramen

                A hole; plural, foramina, or foramens

                Fossa

                A pit or hollow; plural, fossae

                Fracture

                A break in the continuity of bone

                G

                Glenoid

                Resembling a pit or pocket. The glenoid fossa of the scapula is very shallow. Analogous to the acetabulum of the hip

                GMP

                Good Manufacturing Practices, part of total quality systems

                H

                Hallux

                The great toe; hallucis "of the great toe"

                Harris Hip Scores

                A numerical rating scale used for evaluation of the hip. The Harris Hip Rating Scale evaluates pain, function, absence of deformity and range of motion. One hundred is the highest possible total.

                HSS Knee Scores

                Hospital for Special Surgery Knee Scores, a numerical scale for rating knees.

                Humerus

                The upper arm bone.

                Hydroxyapatite (HA)

                A bioactive calcium phosphate ceramic similar to normal bone, may be applied to implant surfaces.

                Hyper

                Prefix meaning above; opposite of hypo.

                Hyperplasia

                Increase in size of a tissue or organ due to an increase in the number of cells.

                Hypertrophy

                Increase in the size of a tissue or organ due to an increase in the size of its constituent cells.

                Hypo

                A prefix meaning below or under; opposite or epi or hyper.

                I

                IDE

                Investigational Device Exemption (studies of experimental products).

                Ilium

                The bone of the flank; adjective is iliac; ilio is the combining form.

                Implant

                A device (or tissue or substance) that is transferred, grafted, or inserted into a living body. (see also stem, prosthesis)

                Index

                Referring to the forefinger or "pointing" finger.

                Inferior

                Situated or placed below; opposite of superior; inferioris, a Latin form of the adjective.

                Infra

                A prefix meaning "beneath," opposite of supra.

                Ingrowth

                The process of living bone or tissue growing up to and into the surface of an implant, very important for stabilization and long-term life of the implant. (bone or bony ingrowth)

                Instrument

                A tool or implement used in surgery.

                Inter

                A prefix meaning "between".

                Interbody fusion

                A surgical technique for achieving bony fusion between invertebral bodies, term used to describe a specific back surgery technique.

                Interface

                Surface forming a common boundary between two bodies (used to describe the interaction of implant and living tissue).

                Internal

                Within or on the inside.

                Intra

                A prefix meaning "within".

                Inversion

                The act of tuning inward; opposite of eversion.

                Invert

                To turn in; to turn the sole of the foot inward; opposite of evert.

                Involuntary

                Performed against the will or consent.

                Ischium

                Bone of the hip; adjective is ischiatic, ischial, or sciatic.

                ISO

                International Standards Organization, a standards issuing body.

                K

                Knee Society Score

                A numerical scale for evaluating knee function developed by the Knee Society.

                Kyphosis

                An abnormal condition (curvature) of the spine; hunch-backed.

                L

                Lateral

                Pertaining to the side; opposite of medial.

                LD

                Low-demand or low density

                LDPE

                Low Density Polyethylene

                Ligament

                Fibrous connective tissue connecting the articular ends of bones serving to bind them together and to facilitate or limit motion.

                Lordosis

                Abnormal anterior convexity of the lumbar spine.

                Lumen

                Space within a tube or organ.

                Lunate

                A bone of the carpus shaped like a crescent moon.

                Luxation

                Dislocation of a joint.

                M

                M/L

                Medial/Lateral (anatomic term)

                Major

                Larger, opposite of minor, majus is neuter adjective.

                Malleolus

                A little hammer (mallet); a hammer-shaped process; ankle bone. Plural, malleoli.

                Mandible

                Bone of lower jaw.

                Marrow

                Soft central part of a bone.

                Maxilla

                A jawbone; particularly the bone of the upper jaw.

                Media

                Middle

                Medial

                Pertaining to the center; opposite of lateral.

                Median

                Pertaining to the middle; that is, between two other structures.

                Meniscectomy

                Removal of the meniscus cartilage of the knee.

                Meniscus

                A "C" shaped cartilage in the knee which provides a stabilization system for the knee and a measure of shock absorption

                Metacarpus

                Beyond the instep; the five bones of the foot between the toes and tarsal bone

                Metal-backed

                Term used to describe implants that have a polyethylene liner set in a metal shell or on a metal base, the metal portion would rest in a prepared area in the bone and the polyethylene side would move against other metal components

                Minor

                Smaller, opposite of major.

                Morphology

                The study of the structure of organisms, used colloquially to refer to the structure of body parts

                N

                Navicular

                Boat shaped; carpal bone at the base of the thumb. Also called the scaffoid

                Necrosis

                Death of areas of tissue or bone surrounded by healthy tissue.

                Non-porous

                An implant designed to be used with bone cement for stabilization; a surface that is not designed for nor coated with surfaces for ingrowth

                O

                O.R.I.F.

                Open Reduction, Internal Fixation.

                Oblique

                Slanting; between horizontal and vertical direction..; Latin adjective, obliquus

                Olecranon

                From the Greek word for elbow. The prominence at the proximal end of the ulna

                Opposition

                The act of opposing one part to another.

                Orbital

                Pertaining to the orbit (eye).

                Organ

                A group of tissues having a special function.

                Orthopedics

                Branch of medical science that deals with treatment of disorders involving locomotor structures of the body, especially the skeleton, joints, muscle, fascia.

                Orthopedist

                A physician specializing in orthopedics.

                Os

                Bone; Os coxae - hip bone.

                Osmosis

                Passage of fluid across a membrane from a lesser to a more highly concentrated solution

                Ossification

                Formation of bone.

                Osteophyte

                An abnormal bony outgrowth

                Osteoporosis

                Increased porosity of bone.

                Osteotomy

                Cutting and repositioning bone to more functional position.

                Outcome management

                The process of collecting, tracking and interpreting outcomes data

                Outcomes

                The results of surgery in terms of patient satisfaction, reduction of pain, improved function, etc. Outcomes are tracked by hospitals and practices.

                Oxygenless

                A patented procedure used by Zimmer in the packaging of polyethylenes where oxygen is removed from the packaging. Lab testing has shown the process decreases the wear rates of PE (polyethylene).

                P

                Palmar

                The palm of the hand.

                Para

                Prefix meaning "beside," "accessory to" or near.

                Patella

                The kneecap

                Patient Satisfaction Surveys

                Surveys which seek to measure patients’ satisfaction with their surgery, recovery, etc. These form part of the outcomes data that surgeons and hospitals track.

                Pearls

                Expert surgical techniques developed by senior surgeons, often for particular implants or procedures. (see surgical pearls)

                Pedal

                Pertaining to the foot.

                Pelvis

                A basin or basin-like structure.

                Peri

                Prefix meaning "around."

                Peripheral

                Located on or near the surface of a part.

                Pes

                The foot; pedis, "of the foot."

                Phalanges

                Plural of phalanx, which refers to any bone of the finger or toe.

                Plantar

                Pertaining to the sole of the foot; plaritaris; Latin adjective plantae, "of the sole of the foot."

                Plasma

                Fluid portion of the blood.

                Plasma spray

                A coating for implants

                Plastics

                A common term that in orthopedic devices refers usually to polyethylene and more specifically to ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). (see also polyethylene, UHMWPE)

                PMA

                Pre-Market Approval (FDA approval after IDE study is complete).

                PMMA

                Poly methylmethacrylate (bone cement). (see also cement, bone cement)

                Polyethylene

                A type of plastic formed by the polymerization of ethylene. Different structural properties come from differences in molecular weight, branching, cross-linkage and crystallinity. The most common form used in orthopedic devices is ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE).

                Pore

                Small holes or spaces on the surface or interior of a material.

                Porous

                Characterized by pores and open spaces.

                Porous-coated

                The design feature of a type of implant where the metal has small surface openings into which bone or tissue is intended to grow for permanent stabilization.

                Posterior

                Situated behind or toward the back; opposite of anterior.

                Press-fit

                Describes the fit at the interface of an implant with the surrounding bone; the implant is implanted without cement and is tightly "pressed" or impacted into the patient’s bone. (see also uncemented)

                Primary

                Initial or first; in joint replacement, this term is used to indicate the first surgery to repair or replace a joint as opposed to a revision surgery which replaces or revises an implant.

                Process

                A slender projecting point; Latin, processus.

                Prognosis

                The likely outcome of an illness

                Pronate

                To turn palm downward (opposite: supinate).

                Prone

                Lying with face downward (opposite: supine).

                Prosthesis

                Replacement of a missing part by an artificial substitute. An artificial organ or part.

                Protract

                To extend forward or outward; opposite of retract.

                Proximal

                Nearest; opposite of distal.

                PS

                Posterior Stabilized; a posterior stabilized knee is a type of semiconstrained total knee system that compensates for a deficient or absent posterior cruciate ligament through its surface geometry (its design minimizes forward and backward movement of the knee and substitutes for the function of the ligament).

                Pseudarthrosis

                A false joint developing after a fracture that has not united.

                Pseudo

                A prefix signifying "false.

                PT

                Premier Total

                Pubis

                Pubic bone

                R

                Radiolucent

                Allowing x-rays to pass through, radiolucent areas appear dark on x-rays.

                Radius

                A bone of the forearm.

                Ream,reaming

                A verb meaning to gouge out holes or enlarge holes already made, in orthopedic surgery, bones need to be reamed to allow for the implantation of a prosthesis.

                Recurvatum

                Hyperextension of the knee.

                Reduction

                Restoration to normal position.

                Retract

                To pull back; opposite of protract.

                Retrieve

                To remove an implant from a patient (retrieved, retrieval)

                Retro

                Prefix meaning behind.

                Retroflexion

                A backward bending of one part of an organ on another portion; Opposite of anteflexion.

                Retroversion

                A backward turning; the entire organ is turned backward; opposite of anteversion.

                Revision

                In orthopedic surgery, this term indicates a subsequent surgery to alter, replace or remove an implant

                Roentgenogram

                A photograph made by means of roentgen rays or x-rays. The rays are named in honor of their discoverer.

                Roentgenoscopy

                Examination by means of a fluoroscope

                ROM

                The area through which a joint may be moved in all planes, measured in degrees. The greater the ROM, the more flexible the joint. One of the goals of joint replacement is to improve a patient’s ROM in the joint that may have been lost to arthritis, trauma or deformity. (range of motion)

                Rotation

                The act of turning about a centrally located length axis

                S

                Sac

                Any bag-like organ

                Sacrum

                Five fused vertebrae below the last lumbar vertebra

                Sagittal

                Pertaining to the median vertical plane of the body

                Scapula

                The shoulder blade.

                Scoliosis

                Lateral abnormal curvature of the spine

                Semilunar

                Shaped like a half moon

                Septic

                Infection due to presence of pathogenlc organisms

                Serrated

                Having a saw-tooth edge

                Serum

                Clear portion of any animal fluid

                Shear

                A biomechanical term meaning a load applied parallel to the surface of a structure; shear strength is the amount of resistance in a material to angular deformation (bending) resulting from shear forces

                Shell

                The acetabular component, the part of a hip replacement system that serves for the hip socket

                Sinus

                A cavity

                Skeleton

                The hard framework of the body. The bones of the body collectively

                Spinous

                A spine-like process; Latin adjective, spinatus

                SS

                Stainless Steel

                Stem

                A device (or tissue or substance) that is transferred, grafted, or inserted into a living body (see also implant, prosthesis)

                Sterile

                Clean and free from all living micro-organisms

                Sternum

                The breast bone

                Sub

                Prefix meaning "below" or "beneath"

                Subclavian

                Beneath the clavicle

                Subluxation

                A partial or incomplete dislocation

                Submaxillary

                Beneath the maxilla

                Subscapular

                Beneath the scapula

                Subsidence

                The settling of a prosthesis after implantation; it is determined by comparing x-rays immediately after surgery to x-rays taken at a later date. Subsidence is a sure sign of loosening of an implant

                Superior

                Higher; opposite of inferior; superioris, a Latin form of the adjective

                Supinate

                To turn the palm of the hand upward (opposite: pronate)

                Supine

                Lying flat on the back (opposite: prone)

                Supra

                Prefix meaning "above;" super has same meaning; opposite of sub

                Surgical pearls

                Expert surgical techniques or tips developed by senior surgeons, often for particular implants or procedures

                Surgical technique

                A series of steps required to complete a surgical procedure (or operation)

                Symphysis

                A growing together

                Synovectomy

                An immovable joint

                Synovia

                A union of bones by means of cartilage

                Synovial Membrane

                A thin tissue that lines the capsule surrounding the joint

                T

                Talus

                The ankle; a bone of the ankle. The tarsal bone articulating with the distal tibia and fibula.

                Tarsus

                (1) The instep; the seven bones forming the back portion of the foot (2) Connective tissue framework of the eyelids.

                Telesession

                An instructional course or lecture provided by one-way video, often a telesession consists of an expert surgeon discussing and/or demonstrating specific techniques or characteristics of an implant system.

                Template

                An outline used to trace bones in order to standardize its form; surgeons use templates of implants to measure against a patient’s x-rays to select the best size and best design for the patient’s anatomy and surgical needs.

                Tendon

                Fibrous connective tissue serving for the attachment of muscles to bones and other parts. Syn. - sinew

                Tensile strength

                A biomechanical measurement of the amount of stress required to cause a given material to fail.

                Thoracic

                Pertaining to the chest; thoracico or thoraco, containing forms

                Ti

                The abbreviation for Titanium, a metal often used in implants

                Tibia

                Latin name of shin bone. Larger bone in the lower leg. Pertaining to the tibia; Latin adjective, tibialis

                Tissue

                A collection of similar cells specialized to perform a particular function

                Titanium

                A metal often used in the manufacture of orthopedic devices or implants. It has good fatigue, wear and strength characteristics and is often combined with other metals in alloys which enhance desirable characteristics.

                Trabecular

                A type of mature bone commonly found at the ends of bones, it is composed of a latticework of bony plates and columns. Its structure gives trabecular bone a great deal of strength despite having less bony material than cortical bone.

                Trochanter

                Either of two bony processes of the upper femoral shaft for muscle attachment

                Trochlear groove

                The articular portion of the anterior surface of the distal femur (the front-facing notch at the lowest part of the femur where the femur joins the knee joint, this groove provides a shallow depression where the patella slides as the knee articulates).

                Tubercle

                A small rounded elevation of eminence on a bone

                Tuberosity

                Broad eminence on a bone

                U

                UHMWPE

                Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene, a type of polyethylene with superior wear properties, very commonly used in orthopedic devices. (see also polyethylene, plastic)

                Ulna

                The inner and larger bone or the forearm; In the correct anatomic position, palms forward, the inner and larger bone of the forearm, between the wrist and the elbow, on the side opposite the thumb.

                Ultra-congruent

                Highly congruent, contains a high degree of constraint between two articular implants (see also congruent)

                Uncemented

                A prosthesis that is implanted without cement (see also press-fit)

                UNI

                Unicompartmental knee (also can be the abbreviation for unilateral)

                Unilateral

                One-sided, affecting only one-side (ex. a unilateral knee replacement would replace just one knee, not both) (see also uni)

                V

                Valgus

                A term denoting position meaning bent outward (knock-knee) or twisted, applied especially to deformities in which a part is bent outward. Also increased femoral head-neck angle

                Value-added services

                This is a broad term that encompasses systems that help orthopedic customers (surgeons and hospitals) meet the demands of managed care, these systems are not directly related to orthopedic implants

                Varus

                (1) Turned inward; bowlegged. (2) A condition in which a clubfooted person walks on outer border of the foot. Also, decreased femoral head-neck angle

                Vastus

                Wide or great

                Vertex

                The summit or apex

                Viscous

                Sticky or gummy, thick fluid

                Vitreous

                Glassy

                Voluntary

                Performed in accordance with the will; opposite of involuntary

                W

                Wear

                The loss of material from solid surfaces due to mechanical abrasion

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